Oh! The Places You’ll Go Part II

Welcome back for another look through an ARCO street map from 1967! If you missed part one, you can find it here.

1. Sick’s Stadium

Baseball fans across the US have surely heard of the Seattle Mariners. Local fans, of course, know that they play home games at Safeco Field. Long-time Mariner fans will likely remember when the M’s played at the long-gone Kingdome. But long before the Mariners debuted, Seattle had a minor league baseball team called The Seattle Rainiers.

They played at Sick’s Stadium.

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Located in Rainier Valley at the intersection of McClelland Street and Rainier Avenue
(now Martin Luther King Jr. Way), Sick’s Stadium was built in 1938 for $350,000. The stadium was named in honor of Emil Sick, owner of both The Seattle Rainiers and the Rainier Brewing Company. In 1955, Fred Hutchinson (namesake of the Seattle cancer research center) became manager of the team, which had been the country’s most popular minor league baseball team based on game attendance. He left in 1956 to manage the St. Louis Cardinals, but returned three years later.

Televised baseball games caused attendance to drop, and Sick sold his team to the Boston Red Sox in 1961. He preserved ownership of the stadium. In November 1964, Sick and Hutchinson died within one day of each other. Ownership of the park transferred to Sick’s family, who chose to rename it Sicks’ Stadium, rather than the original Sick’s Stadium. The Red Sox sold the team to the California Angels, and the Rainiers were christened the Seattle Angels.

In 1967, Seattle was awarded a major league team… But only if they promised to build a bigger venue within three years. In 1969, voters passed a campaign for the Kingdome, but Sicks’ was expanded to serve as a temporary home until the Kingdome could be completed. The Seattle Pilots took debuted in the largely inadequate field.

Sick’s Stadium hosted not only baseball in the 1970s, but rock concerts and a wrestling match. It quickly fell into disrepair and was demolished in 1979, two years after the completion of the Kingdome.

Now, a Lowe’s Home Improvement store sits where Sick’s once was. The store has erected a commemorative plaque at the site of First Base.

2. Luther Burbank School for Boys

Located on Mercer Island, the Luther Burbank School for Boys actually closed in 1966, a year before the map is dated. The land originally belonged to Charles C. Calkins, who founded the community of East Seattle on the upper part of Mercer Island. He built an extravagant home for his family and an equally extravagant hotel, which guests accessed by a ride on Calkins’ steamboat.

The 1893 depression, the death of two of his children, and a house fire drove the Calkins Family from their homestead. Charles mortgaged off all he had and left the community.

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In 1890, Seattle Mayor Cicero Newell and his wife opened a parental school for boys and girls at the intersection of East Union and 35th Street. Not long after the departure of the Calkins Family, Newell leased their hotel and moved the school. Neighbors were not particularly fond of the hotel’s new use, and Newell felt that the Calkins’ property would be better suited for his school.

In 1903, local school districts were authorized by the state to create truant schools, and the following year the Seattle School District bought the Calkins homestead property. While school buildings and dorms were going up,  Newell moved 40 students (30 boys and 10 girls) to a tent on the new property. Newell served as superintendent of the new school until the completion of its first buildings.

William Baker ran the school for a short time before being replaced by teacher and house parent Willis Rand. Rand oversaw the school’s development  for more than 35 years. A hospital, barn, and laundry facility were built on the site, as was a self-sufficient farm that students tended.

The Mercer Island Parental School began taking in “morally delinquent” youths, who were required to stay at the school until they were paroled. The average stay was nine months. As many of its students came from broken homes or alcoholic parents, the school provided its students with education, emotional development, and medical care.

The school’s horticultural department was excellent. After half a day in class, students would work on the farm, tending to orchards, livestock, and their own gardens. In 1928, all female students were moved to Martha Washington School. The school changed its name in 1931, both to eliminate the stigma of parental schools as homes to delinquents and to honor the famous botanist Luther Burbank.

Rand retired in 1942, and although the school and farm continued to operate, they slowly fell into disrepair. By the 1950s, the school was overcrowded, and the buildings inadequate. A 1957 state law change mandated that the state run all Parental schools. The Seattle School District leased the land to the state but continued to oversee operations at the school.

The state had to decide to rebuild the entire campus or build a new school on state-owned land and relocate. Mercer Island had become increasingly suburban, and many residents felt that a school for delinquents was not a fit for their community. The debate continued until 1963 when a new school was recommended to be built in Preston, Washington. Echo Glen School opened four years later to 83 students from Luther Burbank and Martha Washington Schools.

Even with the school gone, debate continued on what to do with the land. In 1968, the Forward Thrust bond designated it a park. The wooden buildings on the property were burned down in 1976, but the 1928 dormitory was restored and stands to this day.

3. Snippets of Seafair

Seafair has been an integral part of summers in Seattle since 1950, and it is so popular that a few of its landmarks were showcased on this map.

Perched on the southern tip of Green Lake, the Aqua Theatre was launched the same year as Seafair. Originally the home to the Aqua Follies,  a group of performers who put on “swim-musicals”, the theatre also hosted musicals and concerts before it was mostly demolished in 1979.

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Aqua Theatre in 2010

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The second piece of Seafair commemorated on this map is one that hasn’t changed: the Unlimited Hydroplane race course!

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4. Sand Point

Now home to Seattle’s second-largest park, Sand Point Naval Air Station was an important military fixture from 1920 to 1970.

When the U.S. was entering World War I, the Navy asked Captain Luther E. Gregory to scope out a location for an aircraft base in the Puget Sound Reason. Gregory recommended Sand Point in Seattle, but the war ended before the Navy made their final decision. However, a group of veterans began lobbying the county to build an airport at Sand Point and the county began buying small farms on the site Gregory had recommended.

A groundbreaking ceremony was held June 19, 1920, and from there the development of Sand Point began.

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An air strip was built and an Army hangar was brought in from California, but the station lacked funding and could not be officially accepted by the Navy without action from Congress. On the last day of January 1921, Congress approved Sand Point as the best location for the type of station the Navy desired. More than a year later, the Navy officially secured control of the land and funding from congress. The first permanent hangar was completed in 1923 and development continued through the 20s.

With the onslaught of the Depression brought a lack of funds. Despite this, the Sand Point runway was finally paved, and the New Deal groups like the Civilian Conservation Corps helped erect more structures.

After the outbreak of World War II, Congress allotted $4 million to the improvement of Sand Point (Naval Air Station Seattle). Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Sand Point became an important hub for air traffic, plane repairs, and supplies. More than 8,000 people worked at Sand Point during the war, but by late 1945, employment dropped to 3,000.

The Navy announced that it would close Sand Point in 1950, but three months before its closure, the Korean War broke out and the station was needed once more. As it had in the years after the World War II, Sand Point was responsible for the repair and overhaul of aircraft. After the Korean Conflict ended, Sand Point resumed its regular purpose as a training base. As the naval base on Whidbey Island continued to develop, the need for Sand Point lessened. It closed in 1970.

Sand Point is now home to Magnuson Park, which features many of the station’s buildings from its early years of development.

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Oh! The Places You’ll Go: Seattle Part I

Before the days of smart phones, Google Maps, and even Map Quest, what did you consult when you were lost? A good, old-fashioned map, of course! Often tucked in a glove box or thrown across the backseat, a trusty map could turn a lost traveler into a confident driver. But what if you consulted a map from 50 years ago? What sorts of things might you find?

Let’s find out!

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The covers feature recognizable Seattle landmarks

Distributed in 1967 by the Atlantic Richfield Company (also known as Arco), this map shows the greater Seattle area, from Tukwila to Edmonds, and West Seattle to Redmond. While many aspects of the roads and landmarks are the same, many aren’t. Part I will highlight a few spots around Seattle.

1. The Seattle Center

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Seattle Center, 1967-style!

A mere five years after the World’s Fair for which it was built, the Seattle Center had changed, but not much. Many of the buildings still stood, although they had different purposes:

  • The building that had housed exhibits for India and Korea became Youth Recreation
  • Senior Citizens Activities occupied the building left behind by Africa, Thailand, the Philippines, and the UN
  • “Show Street” was completely dismantled
  • The United Arab Republic made way for a World’s Fair Museum
  • The US Science Pavilion was christened The Pacific Science Center
  • The Christian Pavilion gave way to the Nile Temple
  • Part of the Gayway gave way to Space Needle Parking
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Seattle Center now, courtesy of Google Maps

Even today, many of the Center’s trademark buildings still exist, although with different names. The Seattle Center is also significantly smaller, as pieces of it have slowly vanished over the years.

  • “Municipal Parking Garage” is now called “Mercer Street Garage”
  • “High School Memorial Stadium” has been shortened to simply “Memorial Stadium”
  • Space Needle parking? What Space Needle parking? Try looking under the EMP
  • “Food Circus” is now the plain old “Center House”
  • “Opera House” became “Marion Oliver McCaw Hall”
  • “Arena” or “Mercer Arena” was demolished earlier this year
  • The Sky Ride was moved to the Washington State Fairground decades ago

 

2. Downtown

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Downtown 50 Years Ago

Each red box on the map represented an important structure. Here is a guide to all 44 spots:

  1. Benjamin Franklin Hotel: Demolished in 1980 for an expansion of the Westin Hotel
  2. Bon Marche: First sold in 1986, it changed its name to Macy’s in 2005
  3. Canadian Pacific Dock: It once ferried people between Seattle and B.C. Now it’s gone
  4. Central Bus Terminal: The site is under construction
  5. Chamber of Commerce:This ornate structure now houses businesses  5a. City Hall
  6. City Light Building: Now home to Expediors, a freight forwarding service
  7. Continental Trailways Bus Depot: Now a parking garage
  8. County Building: Now called King County Superior Court
  9. Doctor’s Hospital: Now part of Virginia Mason Hospital
  10. Federal Court Building: Today, it’s called US Appeals Court
  11. Federal Office Building: The Unites States Post Office occupies this site today
  12. Federal Reserve Bank: Current Home to the Washington Department of Licensing
  13. Ferry Terminal:  Also called the Colman Dock
  14. Fireboats Station: Serving you since 1902. Serving you from this building since 1963
  15. Frederick & Nelson: A new shopping center now occupies this lot
  16. Harbor Patrol Station: The Harbor Patrol moved to Lake Union in the 1960s
  17. King Street Station: Built in 1906, it was finally returned to its former glory in 2013
  18. KOMO Radio and TV Stations: Some things never change
  19. KTNT TV Studios: Present-day parking lot
  20. Logan Building: This 10-story office building was built in 1959, renovated in 2009
  21. Mayflower Hotel: Celebrating 90 years of operation in 2017
  22. McDougall’s: This department store closed in 1966 and was demolished in 1971. It is now the site of a brick parking garage and Ludi’s Restaurant
  23. New Washington Doric Hotel: Elvis stayed here while filming “It Happened at the World’s Fair” in 1962. Now home to many as the Josephinum Apartments
  24. Norton Building: Built in 1959, this office building still stands
  25. Old Armory: The armory stood from 1909-1968. The site is now retail and offices
  26. Olympic Hotel: Open since 1924
  27. Penney’s: After nearly 50 years of business, this location closed in the early 80s. The building was demolished, and replaced with the Newmark Tower a decade later
  28. Pike Place Market: Thanks to preservation efforts in the 60s and 70s, the Market remains and is a hot tourist destination
  29. Post Office: The post office still operates a branch at this location
  30. Pubic Library and Civic Information Center: The 1960 library building on the old map was replaced in 2004
  31. Public Safety Building: Now the home to Seattle Department of Neighborhoods, Seattle City Hall, Seattle City Council, and Einsten Bros. Bagels
  32. Rhodes: This branch of “Seattle’s Home-Owned Department Store” was closed in 1968 and demolished in 2005 for the WaMu Center Bank Tower
  33. Roosevelt Hotel: Hosting travelers since 1929
  34. Seattle General Hospital: Originally a hospital and nursing school, it merged with Swedish Medical Center in 1978 and moved. This building seems to have been replaced
  35. Seattle Park Department Administrative Building: Now called “Seattle Parks and Recreation Superintendent’s Office”
  36. Seattle Post-Intelligencer Building: The Seattle P-I moved from this building in 1986 and became online-only in 2009. The City University of Seattle now occupies this building
  37. Seattle Times Building: Now located in offices next-door, the Seattle Times sold their original building in 2013. Demolition started last year
  38. Smith Tower: Built in 1914, it’s the city’s oldest skyscraper
  39. Transit Service Office: Go to this location now and you’ll find a supermarket and a Starbuck’s
  40. Union Station: Today, it’s the beautifully-restored headquarters of Sound Transit
  41. Virginia Mason Hospital: Although much larger now, Virginia Mason still resides at this location
  42. Washington Athletic Club: Built in 1930, the club became a city landmark in 2009
  43. YMCA: 50 years later, this branch is still open
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Downtown Now, Courtesy of Google Maps

3. Museum of Science and Industry (MOHAI)

Planning a trip to MOHAI? Don’t use this map! If you do, you may find yourself near the University of Washington when you really need to be on the south end of Lake Union.

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MOHAI in Montlake

In 1967, MOHAI was situated in East Montlake Park off of East Park Drive. The museum opened in early 1952, displaying a collection of artifacts and photos that had been gathered since the 1910s by the local historical society.

The museum rapidly grew and expanded over the nest decade and a half, but when Highway 520 moved in, getting to the museum became more challenging. Voters who had once saved the museum from complete highway encirclement were upset by the heavy traffic through their once-quiet neighborhood and opposed subsequent museum expansion plans.

In the 1970s, MOHAI was plagued by unprofessional and unscrupulous employees. Artifacts were improperly handled, and some were even stolen. Employees who spoke up for the betterment of the museum were dismissed and/or publicly shamed. Staffing changes in the latter part of the decade pulled the museum out of the rubble, displaying more of its collections and shifting the focus of its exhibits back to local history.

In 2012, sixty years after the museum first opened, it relocated from Union Bay to Lake Union, setting up in the former Naval Reserve Training Center (also called Naval Reserve Armory).

The armory was built between 1941-1942 by the Works Progress Administration for $500,000. It operated as a naval training school during the second world war, but was decommissioned shortly thereafter. In 1946 it received renovation funding, in 1998 it was disestablished, and in 2009 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

 

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MOHAI’s Current Home